Tetanus is an acute disease induced by a bacterium, Clostridium tetani, which exists in the gut of man, in domestic animals and is found in the soil. Infection enters the body through wounds - such as those caused by a splinter, nail in the boot or a garden fork or following septic infection such as a dirty abrasion. It's a serious condition as 1 in 10 will die due to the disease. It is more prone to young children, new borns and elderly population who are not immunized.
In unfavorable circumstances to the growth of the organism, spores are formed and these remain dormant for years in the soil. Spores of tetanus live in the feces, soil, dust and instruments. A tiny breach in the skin or mucosa can give entry to the spores, which then germinate and make the exotoxin.
The toxin is neutralized with Anti-tetanus serum. This Prevents the further production of toxins by antibiotics. Spasm can be controlled by nursing in a quite room, avoiding unnecessary stimuli and sedation . Adequate hydration and nutrition maintain the general condition of the patient.